Canada’s immigration system is leaking immigrants at a faster rate than before.

The onward migration rate—when immigrants who came to Canada migrate to a third country—across all immigrant cohorts that arrived between 1982 and 2018 increased to 1.15% in 2017, up from 0.8% in 2016, according to a study (pdf) released by the Institute for Canadian Citizenship (ICC) and the Conference Board of Canada on Oct. 31. In 2019, it reached a further high of 1.18%.

These rates are far above the 0.9% historical average of the onward migration rate among people who were granted permanent residence in or after 1982.