This month, China’s government began a nationwide poll of 500,000 urban and rural households to learn more about population trends. The survey, coming soon after China’s “once-in-a-decade” 2020 census, was, in the words of Reuters, “unexpected.”

China’s leaders look like they are now panicking over population decline. Will they force couples to procreate? Or will they industrialize the process of procreation?

The population survey came just days after Chinese leadership tried to talk up births. Xi Jinping, in remarks published by the official Xinhua News Agency on Oct. 30, told women to start a “new trend of family.”