As Maryam watched an online video recorded in Ukraine of a Russian attack, the memories came flooding back.
She heard the wailing of a diving Russian plane, and yanked the headphones out of her ears, peeked at the sky above her and fell on the floor in shock.
“I haven’t heard this sound since the war,” Maryam, a Chechen refugee settled in a Western country, told Al Jazeera by phone.
She withheld her last name and other personal information because she still has family in Chechnya.
It was not just the sound.
The way Russian missiles, bombs and artillery appeared to deliberately target residential areas and the accusations and evidence that Russian soldiers tortured and killed civilians in occupied territories reminded Maryam of what she and many Chechens went through.